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Florence – Cattedrale di Santa Maria del Fiore 『聖母百花大教堂』

Posted by on 2012-09-09

來到佛羅倫斯, 另一個非看不可的地標就是『聖母百花大教堂』了.
Another landmark you must visit in Florence is 『Cattedrale di Santa Maria del Fiore』.

一樣, 歷史的部份就請去看WIKI了(不過中文的資料有點少..)
這個教堂很大, 共分為主教堂(又分圓頂, 地下室), 鐘樓, 洗禮堂, 與博物館共四區.
As the same, please go visit wiki for more history detail.
This is a big Cathedral, including 4 areas : Main Cathedral(Dome and Crypt), Bell tower. Baptistery, and Museum.

主教堂的大廳是免費的, 但是圓頂, 地下室, 鐘樓, 洗禮堂就是要門票的.
基本上除非只打算看圓頂. 不然買套票是比較划算(15歐, 4天內有效)
Some area in main Cathedral are free, but you will need ticket for Dome, Bell tower. Baptistery, and Museum.
Unless you have wanna visit the Dome only, a 4 days pass will be benefited.

這些全要逛玩差不多也要整整一天. 主要是爬圓頂跟鐘樓是真的很辛苦. 就算是冬天也爬的我們滿身大汗啊..
進了大門, 語音導覽機的租借櫃檯就在左手邊, 印象中是4歐吧.
If you wanna visit all 4 place, I think it’s also about 1 day.
Especially claim the Dome and Bell Tower, it really need some hard work.
OK, after the door, you will see the counter of audio guide on the left side.
I think it’s 4 euro if my memory is right.

門口的上面是一個由Paolo Uccello裝飾的時鐘, 是義大利時間24小時制的喔.
根據Wiki, 這個時鐘上是義大利時間的24小時制, 似乎是日落時表示一天的結束(日落時為24點).
這個時間制一直使用到18世紀, 而這個時鐘則是少數留存並還可以運作的其中之一.
There is a old ROMA clock above the main door, this clock decorated by Paolo Uccello.
According Wiki —
This one-handed liturgical clock shows the 24 hours of the hora italica (Italian time), a period of time ending with sunset at 24 hours.
This timetable was used until the 18th century. This is one of the few clocks from that time that still exist and are in working order.

不知道是不是有活動的關係, 圓頂的下面被圍起來不能走過去.
I wasn’t sure why we can’t cross the prayer area, maybe there was some activities.

當時還覺得很怪, 為啥地上有一個欄杆, 原來就是地下室的入口.
This is the Crypt entrance, looks very weird to me.

下了樓梯後, 左手邊就是你的好朋友 – Bookshop
Downstairs, you will see bookshop on left hand side.

右手邊就是開始要收錢的地方啦~
And you will see a ticket counter on the right.

我們就是在這邊買的套票, 地下室中陳列了很多挖出來的物品.
We bought our pass here, they list many exhibit they discovered from here.

這邊是教堂最早的部份(The Basilica of Santa Reparata).
This is the part of ancient building — Santa Reparata.

我想還是得提一部份的歷史, 這個教堂一共有三個時期, 最早期是Santa Reparata(西元五世紀初)
1219年時重新設計後開工, 後來中間因為黑死病一度停工, 一直到1418才完成除了圓頂的部份. 到了1436年, 終於完工舉行獻堂典禮.
下圖可以看到三個時期大小的變化
I think we still need to go thought a little bit of history here.
There are 3 periods about this Cathedral.
Period 1 : Santa Reparata (from early 5th century ~ 13th century)
Period 2 : Cathedral’s map after Arnolfo di Cambio’s project.
Period 3 : Santa Maria del Fiore

延伸閱讀 – Santa Reparata是誰? [WIKI]
Who is Santa Reparata? [WIKI]

這裡邊還葬了Brunelleschi, 也就是圓頂的建築師.
And also, you will see the tomb of Burnelleschi who built the Dome here.

離開地下室後, 我們就趕著要上圓頂. 圓頂的入口是在外面. 教堂的左邊.
Next is the Dome, the entrance is at outside, on the left side of the building.

套票就直接過入口嚕, 沒想到這才是痛苦的開始啊!
After the gate, there is no way back…

一開始的路還算輕鬆, 只是一直都在黑黑的樓梯中旋轉往上爬會暈..
It’s kind of easy in the beginning, sometime you’ll feel dizzy because of the rotating.

路越到上面就越難走, 有時還需要手腳並用才行.
More close to the root, it become more steep.

路是單向的, 剛好是繞頂上的畫半圈. 大部份的地方都只能單人通過. 中間只有少數幾個地方可以停下來休息.
最頂上有一小塊地方可以看外面的風景..
It’s one way out, so you can’t return. Also, most place are only 1 person pass.
Don’t worry, there are few places where you can take a break.
On the top, there is a small place where can look outside.

不過重點還是上面的穹頂與其上畫的《末日審判》啊!
But most important thing is the Dome and the paint – 《Last Judgement》!

這個大穹頂算是最有名的部份, 除了採用不同的工法外,
就是米開朗基羅在羅馬聖彼得大教堂也建了一座類似的大圓頂,卻自嘆不如:「我可以建一個比它大的圓頂,卻不可能比它的美。」
上面參觀的路很窄, 切記只有路口與出口旁有一點點空間讓你停下來仔細欣賞.
下來後已經接近關門的時間啦, 還語音導覽機時小姐臉真不開心, 大概是我們害她不能提早下班吧.
鐘樓與禮拜堂的部份我們則是隔天才去逛的. (一天要爬兩次這種高度我想我們也受不了吧 XD)
隔天, 我們就是從鐘樓先開始, 這個上去的人就少多了. 裡面根本沒啥人.
The Dome is most famous part. not just Brunelleschi choose different way to build it.
Another reason is Michelangelo, but I couldn’t find his words.
Anyway, if you wanna stand there and spend time to watch the paint carefully.
There are only 2 place you can stay — at the entrance and exit.
Otherwise, you will be pulled by other people all the way out.
it’s pretty late When we went back to the main building.
The lady of audio guide wasn’t very happy.
So, we visited Bell Tower and Baptistery on next day.
We started from Bell Tower first, it really not much people wanna visit here..

鐘樓的樓梯比昨天的好爬一點點. 爬到最上面的時候風景真的不錯.
The stairs are much better then Dome..
The view is great on the top.

下來後就去洗禮堂啦. 一樣門口要查票. 拿出套票嗶一下就可以了.
Then we want to Baptistery.

洗禮堂最有名氣的是外面被米開朗基羅讚為「天國之門」[WIKI]的東側銅門. 超多人在這邊拍照..
The most famous thing here is the door.
According to Wiki :
The south doors were done by Andrea Pisano and the north and east doors by Lorenzo Ghiberti.
The east pair of doors were dubbed by Michelangelo “the Gates of Paradise”.

裡面的頂也夠壯觀的. 而且這邊的畫還保持著比較初期的風格.
當然這個要說的話大概是一本論文的範圍. 我們在聽『Uffizi Gallery』導覽時有提到一些.
因為華人對這個懂的比較少, 我雖然對這個是全外行, 但還是把聽到的在這邊大概轉述一下. 如有不正確的地方還請糾正.
早期的風格就是聖母是神, 所以聖母的形象就是高高在上. 所以會用很多金色, 表情也比較簡單.
到了中世紀時因為世間的墮落, 教會勸世角色變比較重(此時期的耶穌形象就比較嚴厲), 而聖母的形象就轉為較慈愛與越來越人性化.
這部份可能最有名的就是拉斐爾的聖母像《母與子》.
Look at inside, the paint here is more like early style.
If we really wanna the take about this topic, I think it’ll be a dissertation.

洗禮堂中展示了三副畫. 從風格看應該都是相當早期的作品.
There are 3 paint inside, I think those are from very early century.

逛完了洗禮堂, 最後一個更少人去的就是位在教堂後方的博物館啦.
Latest one – Museum, but even less people here.

一樣, 入口就有租語音導覽機
The counter of audio guide is in the entrance.

這裡面放的就是跟教堂相關的物品了.主要就是改建時換下來的石雕與建材…等
This Museum is purpose being to house works of art removed from the Cathedral complex over the centuries.

逛到這邊就算是看完大部份的東西了. 可惜教堂的中心我們走不過去, 所以部份的壁畫或雕塑是沒看到的.
如果時間或預算有限的朋友, 可以考慮只要上圓頂就可以了. 地下室/鐘樓/禮拜堂是可以略過.
To here, we’re pretty much done here.
Too bad we couldn’t enter some area, so we miss some paint or statue.
If you have time/budget limit, you could consider only build the ticket for the Dome.

——————————————
WIKI [LINK]
Opening hours
Monday ~ Friday : 10:00 ~ 17:00
Thursday : 10:00 ~ 16:00
Saturday : 10:00 ~ 16:45
Holiday : 13:30 ~ 16:45

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